Back in February, Apple launched a Chrome extension for iCloud Passwords, which technically allowed you to manage your passwords on Windows. The obvious caveat is that this was a Chrome extension, which meant that if you're utilizing any other browser, you couldn't take advantage of this capability. It wasn't a Windows-native solution, per se. This has now changed, as Apple has released a new version of its iCloud app on Windows which also brings a dedicated password management app.
When you download iCloud 12.5 from the Microsoft Store, you'll also get a dedicated "iCloud Passwords" app. You can find out what it does in detail via Apple's documentation here but in a nutshell, it is a dedicated password management app that allows you view your iCloud account information, update it, delete it, and add new accounts.
Any changes made via this app will be synced across your iCloud-capable devices. It also includes support for an Edge extension so you can autofill and manage your passwords through Microsoft Edge as well.
While the change will be welcomed by many, it is important to note that it does not completely eradicate the need for having an Apple device handy when managing passwords. As XDA notes, you still require Apple hardware to activate the iCloud app on Windows and utilize its capabilities as it uses two-factor authentication, and you need to have a device running iOS 14 or macOS Big Sur 11 in order to receive the security code. You can download iCloud 12.5 from the Microsoft Store here.